|Tipo di tesi||Tesi di dottorato di ricerca|
|Titolo||Stagni dell’Emilia Centrale: biodiversità ed ecologia di ambienti vulnerabili|
|Titolo in inglese||Ponds of Central Emilia: biodiversity and ecology of neglected environments|
|Settore scientifico disciplinare||BIO/07 - ECOLOGIA|
|Corso di studi||MODELS AND METHODS FOR MATERIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES|
|Data inizio appello||2017-04-06|
|Disponibilità||Accessibile via web (tutti i file della tesi sono accessibili)|
Gli stagni sono definiti come corpi d’acqua temporanei o permanenti con una superficie che varia da 1 m2 a 5 ha. Rappresentano oltre il 90% degli specchi d’acqua dolce sul nostro pianeta in termini numerici e il 30% in termini di superficie occupata e si possono trovare in una moltitudine di habitat differenti. Gli stagni sono estremamente importanti per il ruolo che svolgono nel mantenimento della biodiversità degli ambienti di acqua dolce e per il fatto che offrono una variegata gamma di servizi: sono fondamentali nella rimozione degli inquinanti dalle acque, nel sequestro del carbonio e nelle reti ecologiche dove provvedono al mantenimento della connettività tra diversi ambienti. Inoltre, questi specchi d’acqua hanno un elevato valore scientifico ed educativo e risultano importanti da un punto di vista socio-economico.
Ponds are defined as temporary or permanent standing water bodies which are usually restricted in an area going from 1 m2 to 5 hectares. They represent more than the 90% of the total number of water bodies and the 30% in terms of occupied surface, and they are located in a wide range of habitat typologies. Ponds are extremely important for the role they play in maintaining freshwater biodiversity and for the fact that they offer a wide range of services: they are fundamental to the removal of pollutants of the waters, to carbon sequestration and to the ecological networks which provide connectivity across and between landscapes. Moreover, these water bodies have high scientific and educational value and are frequently remarkably significant form a socio-economic point of view. Despite this high value, ponds are nowadays the most vulnerable and threatened water ecosystems and still receive scant attention in political and legislative spheres. In fact, the monitoring program of the EU Water Framework Directive is not adopted for water bodies with a surface area below 50 ha. Therefore, to interrupt this trend and highlight the importance of ponds: i) a new biodiversity index (IBEM) was applied to 28 ponds in Central Emilia and a new dichotomous key for Italian adults of Odonata was developped to simplify the application of the index as no recent keys are present in literature; ii) taxonomic diversities of high mountain ponds of Central Emilia and central-western Alps were compared and analyzed to emphasize which environmental parameters influence the biodiversity of these habitats; iii) two unique ponds of the region have been deeply studied, in order to know the composition of their macroinvertebrates communities. The biodiversity index led to a judgment of the investigated ponds that range them from “bad” to “good”, highlighting an extremely heterogeneous situation. These differences are mainly ascribable to the different typologies of sampled water bodies and to the different pressure of the human impact on them. Results are partially reassuring as it was a precise intention to have a panoramic view of the different typologies of ponds present within the Central Emilia. On the other hand they also highlight that water bodies in good conditions are scarce in the region. Furthermore, during the samplings, different rare and important species of Coleoptera, Odonata and aquatic plants were recorded. The application of the index has permitted to better know the condition of such important environments and to lead future management actions to preserve, protect and improve the value of ponds. Results from the comparison between high mountain ponds showed an influence of the altitudinal gradient on the diversity of the ponds and, indirectly, of the climatic parameters highlighting the hazards that these habitat are facing under the global warming. Results on the two deeply investigated ponds showed a great biodiversity within the two habitats; a new species for the Italian fauna was found (Chironomus aprilinus) and important information on macroinvertebrates communities of ponds were collected. Data represent a first important source of information for the status of these threatened and neglected habitats in Central Emilia. It clearly appeared that even small ecosystems are important as a source of biodiversity and that targeted monitoring and action plans to preserve their peculiar habitat, flora and fauna are needed, together with a greater attention on these neglected ecosystems.