|Tipo di tesi||Tesi di laurea magistrale|
|Titolo||TOTALITARISMO FASCISTA E SCUOLA PRIMARIA IN ITALIA 1923-1945|
|Titolo in inglese|
|Struttura||Dipartimento di Studi Linguistici e Culturali|
|Corso di studi||ANTROPOLOGIA E STORIA DEL MONDO CONTEMPORANEO (D.M.270/04)|
|Data inizio appello||2020-12-15|
|Disponibilità||Embargo di 3 anni|
|Data di rilascio||2023-12-15|
La tesi si pone l’obiettivo di avvalorare l’idea che l’istruzione pubblica, oltre ad assolvere i tradizionali compiti di formazione e socializzazione, rivesta nello Stato moderno un’importanza fondamentale nel legittimare il sistema politico sociale.
The thesis aims to support the idea that public education, in addition to carrying out the traditional tasks of training and socialization, is of fundamental importance in the modern state in legitimizing the social political system. After being considered the necessary tool to make Italians in a young unitary state, divided by languages and cultures, there is no doubt that Italian public education had a decisive role, starting from the 1920s, in the legitimation of the fascist totalitarian system that will be progressively imposed on Italy by his party and its leader Benito Mussolini. Public education was assigned by them the task of shaping the minds of the new Italians through the indoctrination of the classes of the youngest so that, by making the ideology of the party and everything connected to it their own, they would become the obedient citizens of a future Italian fascist empire that would have obtained a strategic position within Europe and recalled the glories, according to the then disillusioned plans of its leader, of ancient Rome. It was possible to ascertain that the pressing influence of politics in the scholastic institution to obtain its support and the sharing of ideology was common not only to fascism but also to National Socialism and according to the research of the historian Jurgen Charnitzky to other totalitarian states of that time, so much so that one wonders why the historical classical theory of totalitarianism fails to list it among the fundamental structural characteristics of totalitarian regimes. The great value given by fascist politics and by Benito Mussolini to the indoctrination of young people through schooling is well documented by a considerable number of publications. During the twenty years of life of the regime, nine Ministers of Education succeeded each other and over 3,500 laws and decrees on schools were passed with the aim of progressively fascising through them not only the scholastic institution but also those who from the very young age they frequented it. Therefore, the fascist regime showed an exceptional interest in the problems of school and education, transforming itself into the educator of the nation for twenty years and adopting totalitarian decision-making power over young people and their education. Therefore, the thesis analyzes the influence of fascism on the Italian primary school and compares it with the equal Nazi education. It also reflects on the influence of primary education on those young people who were called to fight in the Second World War or to experience the difficulties of that period.The young people felt that they represented better than others an historical era that made them protagonists and we believe, from what emerged from the studies of the historian La Rovere and from the interview of one of them, that they were not secretly anti-fascists or partisans but that on the contrary they were the most authoritative witnesses to the failure of that totalitarian experiment that had been fascism from whatever side they looked at it. Finally, the interesting studies by Daria Gabusi have shown us how in the most critical moment of the war period between the autumn of 1943 and the spring of 1945 under the guidance of the Minister of National Education Carlo Alberto Biggini in the newly created Italian Social Republic reopen schools of all types and levels with particular attention to the elementary one. The reopening of the schools assumed a welfare and social function in removing children from the dangers of the road and spreading a feeling of normalization.The resolve of the Minister of National Education to guarantee the opening of schools at that time highlights the strategic role that the elementary school and the teachers also had in legitimizing RSI. At the end of the conflict, the new generations who had been educated in the myth of fascism began to believe that the fascist regime was only a parenthesis in the history of Italy.