In history, many companies have internationalized adopting various strategies and entry modes. After the boom of offshoring phenomenon in the nineties which caused also the extension of internationalization towards business functions (R&D, Design, services, etc), gradually a reversed trend of offshoring emerged. This reversed phenomenon has attracted attention with an ascending trend among scholars, specifically, after 2010 got a very steep increase of attention while the trend has been started roughly around 2004. This phenomenon is referred to, with various terms such as re-shoring, back-shoring, back-re-shoring, and so on.
In this thesis work, first, it has been presented a very brief part of internationalization, motives, barriers, theories and entry modes in order to have an overview of the initial point. Afterwards, the definition has been provided and also motivations of offshoring by reviewing some of the most famous literature. Then it is continued with definitions and classification of re-shoring phenomenon.
In the second chapter, the motives and drives of re-shoring are widely discussed, by presenting some most authentic resources and frameworks, with specific attention on sustainability. This attention has been dedicated as sustainability is another trendy discussion of today’s scholars, considering its importance and effects on providing a better and more secure life for us and our planet as a preventive strategy that decreases the risks which are threatening our planet.
Instead in the third chapter, the re-shoring phenomenon is evaluated on the basis of its dimensions in the world, Italy, different sectors and different typologies of companies. It is continued by giving information on the trade of Italy and world by focusing on textiles and clothing sector.
After giving information on trade and investigating re-shoring with this data, the chapter four will focus on the cases of Italian fashion companies that have implemented re-shoring strategy in order to evaluate more common drivers of Italian fashion companies that re-shore.
The last chapter will analyze vastly the Giorgio Armani case and some different recent re-shoring strategies adopted by the company, first, by giving a very comprehensive background of the company and then by focusing on internationalization and relocation strategies in order to give a better understanding of the re-shoring phenomenon in the real world, evaluating and verifying differences of each re-shoring decision.