Tipo di tesi 
Tesi di laurea magistrale 
Autore 
ALI, MOHAMMED

URN 
etd03202022214035 
Titolo 
Microelectronics Circuits for Quantum Computing: Role of Cryo CMOS control for upscaling quantum computing 
Titolo in inglese 
Microelectronics Circuits for Quantum Computing: Role of Cryo CMOS control for upscaling quantum computing 
Struttura 
Dipartimento di Ingegneria "Enzo Ferrari" 
Corso di studi 
ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING  Ingegneria Elettronica (D.M.270/04) 
Commissione 
Nome Commissario 
Qualifica 
BORGARINO MATTIA 
Primo relatore 

Parole chiave 
 Cryo CMOS technology
 cryogenic CMOS chip
 Quantum computing
 Qubits quantum bits
 spin Qubits and tran

Data inizio appello 
20220411 
Disponibilità 
Embargo di 12 mesi 
Data di rilascio  20230411 
Riassunto analitico
Until now, we’ve relied on supercomputers to solve most problems. These are very large classical computers, often with thousands of classical CPU and GPU cores. However, supercomputers aren’t very good at solving certain types of problems, which seem easy at first glance. This is why we need a quantum computer. Quantum computing harness the possibilities of quantum mechanics to deliver a huge leap forward in computation to solve certain problems. Given the potential computational power of quantum computers, their size of them is expected to be gigantic. In fact, they are currently about the size of a domestic fridge with an accompanying wardrobesized box of control electronics. In classical supercomputers, bits are used. But in the case of a quantum computer, quantum bits or qubits are used which can store information in the quantum form. In conventional computing, the classical phenomenon of electrical circuits is employed. It handles only a single state at a given time which is either on or off, that is 0 or 1. Thus the information storage and the manipulation of the same is based on an electrical state of high and low or we say bit 0 and bit 1. Also, the behaviour of the circuit is governed by classical physics. Quantum computing is based on the phenomenon of quantum mechanics, such as superposition and entanglement, where it is possible to be in more than one state at a time. Information storage and manipulation are based on Quantum Bit or “qubit”, which is based on the spin of electron or polarization of a single photon. The circuit behaviour is governed by quantum physics or quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics use qubits, i.e., 0,1 and superposition of both 0 and 1 to represent information. Superconducting quantum interference devices or squid or quantum transistors are the building blocks of quantum computers. In quantum computers, data processing is done in Quantum Processing Unit or QPU, which consists of a number of interconnected qubits. While computation is performed in quantum computer, if the number of qubits involved is less and thus that is convenient in room temperature. But in case of attaining supremacy, number of qubits involved which in turn result in a large temperature gradient and thus it is not reliable and convenient in normal room temperature. Also, the scalability of the entire system is limited if we stick on to the classic control systems. The scalability of quantum computation is important because in the near future quantum computation will play a key role in every aspect of human life and thus scalability of the system is very important. Thus, cryogenic CMOS or CryoCMOS technology is introduced to address this issue. Classical cryoCMOS control electronics hold the potential to generate the signals necessary to control qubits at amplitudes that are far smaller than todays at room temperature because no thermalization will be required. Low temperatures will also be advantageous to reduce thermal noise in front ends to reach levels far lower than achievable at room temperature. The proximity in space and temperature of cryoCMOS circuits and qubits will drastically reduce the complexity of the cabling and possibly enable superconductive interconnections, thus optimizing thermal isolation with virtually zero electrical losses.

Abstract
Until now, we’ve relied on supercomputers to solve most problems. These are very large classical
computers, often with thousands of classical CPU and GPU cores. However, supercomputers aren’t
very good at solving certain types of problems, which seem easy at first glance. This is why we need a
quantum computer. Quantum computing harness the possibilities of quantum mechanics to deliver a
huge leap forward in computation to solve certain problems. Given the potential computational power
of quantum computers, their size of them is expected to be gigantic. In fact, they are currently about the
size of a domestic fridge with an accompanying wardrobesized box of control electronics. In classical
supercomputers, bits are used. But in the case of a quantum computer, quantum bits or qubits are used
which can store information in the quantum form.
In conventional computing, the classical phenomenon of electrical circuits is employed. It handles only
a single state at a given time which is either on or off, that is 0 or 1. Thus the information storage and
the manipulation of the same is based on an electrical state of high and low or we say bit 0 and bit 1.
Also, the behaviour of the circuit is governed by classical physics. Quantum computing is based on the
phenomenon of quantum mechanics, such as superposition and entanglement, where it is possible to
be in more than one state at a time. Information storage and manipulation are based on Quantum Bit
or “qubit”, which is based on the spin of electron or polarization of a single photon. The circuit behaviour
is governed by quantum physics or quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics use qubits, i.e., 0,1 and
superposition of both 0 and 1 to represent information. Superconducting quantum interference devices
or squid or quantum transistors are the building blocks of quantum computers. In quantum computers,
data processing is done in Quantum Processing Unit or QPU, which consists of a number of
interconnected qubits.
While computation is performed in quantum computer, if the number of qubits involved is less and thus
that is convenient in room temperature. But in case of attaining supremacy, number of qubits involved
which in turn result in a large temperature gradient and thus it is not reliable and convenient in normal
room temperature. Also, the scalability of the entire system is limited if we stick on to the classic control
systems. The scalability of quantum computation is important because in the near future quantum
computation will play a key role in every aspect of human life and thus scalability of the system is very
important. Thus, cryogenic CMOS or CryoCMOS technology is introduced to address this issue.
Classical cryoCMOS control electronics hold the potential to generate the signals necessary to control
qubits at amplitudes that are far smaller than todays at room temperature because no thermalization
will be required. Low temperatures will also be advantageous to reduce thermal noise in front ends to
reach levels far lower than achievable at room temperature. The proximity in space and temperature of
cryoCMOS circuits and qubits will drastically reduce the complexity of the cabling and possibly enable
superconductive interconnections, thus optimizing thermal isolation with virtually zero electrical losses.

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