|Tipo di tesi||Tesi di dottorato di ricerca|
|Titolo||Miglioramento di tre aspetti chiave della produzione suinicola nell’allevamento da riproduzione: Nutrizione, Gestione dei parti e Stato sanitario. Esperienze di campo|
|Titolo in inglese||Improving of three key points of pig production in a breeding farm: Nutrition, Farrowing Management and Health. Field Experiences|
|Settore scientifico disciplinare||AGR/19 - ZOOTECNICA SPECIALE|
|Corso di studi||Scuola di D.R. in SCIENZE, TECNOLOGIE E BIOTECNOLOGIE AGRO-ALIMENTARI|
|Data inizio appello||2017-03-24|
|Disponibilità||Accessibile via web (tutti i file della tesi sono accessibili)|
La performance di un allevamento suinicolo da riproduzione dipende da pochi parametri: fertilità, prolificità e mortalità durante il ciclo di produzione della scrofa e dei suinetti. Questa tesi è focalizzata su un caso studio di un allevamento suinicolo italiano del quale sono stati considerati tre aspetti cruciali per l’incremento della produttività attraverso tre prove di campo distinte. I tre ambiti considerati sono: nutrizione, management e stato sanitario.
The performance of a pig breeding farm depends by some parameters: fertility, prolificity and mortality during the production cycle of sows and their piglets. This thesis is focused on a real case study of an Iitalian breeding farm producing piglets, in which were considered three crucial aspects to increase productivity and the efficiency of a pig farm in three field trials. The three aspects were: nutrition, management and health. In this first trial (nutrition) sow feed had been modified to study the effects of anti-oxidative substances on productivity in two sub-trials; in the feed was tested a premix called "GOLD", and a modified formula called "GOLD EPS", formulated for the reduction of oxidative stress. Gold and Gold-EPS were tested in the first sub-trial during the lactation period of the sows; Gold was also tested during the gestation and lactation in the second sub-trial. Production and metabolic profile data were collected. Also historical data before and after the continuous use of GOLD premix were analyzed. From the first sub-trial, the administration during lactation only of Gold or Gold-EPS had not significant results on sows’ performances. Their administration during a complete reproductive cycle (gestation and lactation, sub-trial two) provided some good results in terms of improved vigor of piglets: weight at birth, less diarrhea, better immune defenses at weaning in terms of total IgG, probably due to a better metabolic status of the mothers. Sow immunity status at farrowing was also influenced positively; however, no difference was found in immunity conditions of colostrum and milk. Sows fertility in terms of number of pregnant sows coming to farrowing and short weaning-insemination interval seems improved. The data was confirmed by analysis of farm historical data. In the second trial were considered the farrowing management and the peripartum period, the effects of the management on piglets mortality and production efficiency of the farrowing house. Therefore, after an appropriate training by the farm veterinarian, new farrowing management techniques were introduced and their effects verified on the overall productivity. For gilts, it was observed that assistance to farrowing has no significant effect on stillbirths and post-farrowing mortality. For sows, the application of induction protocols for farrowing with assistance techniques allowed the improvement of performance in the farrowing house: reduction of stillbirths, increase in weaned piglets and reduction in mortality in the post-natal period. No significant improvement was observed for mortality of piglets during lactation. Positive data were underlined by the farm historical analysis. In the third trial was considered a health problem taking into account the post-natal diarrhea in piglets. Neo-natal diarrhea involved a high mortality of piglets and a high antibiotic use to stabilize health conditions in farrowing house during lactation. An alternative technique to the use of antibiotics was tested to prevent the onset of post-natal diarrhea by use of selected probiotics. In case of sows’ litters both the antibiotic and probiotic treatments produced significant results compared to the control in terms of reduction of the frequency of post-natal diarrhea. Also the mortality and the number of weaned piglets were improved thanks to probiotics. Between the positive control (antibiotic) and the probiotic treatment the difference in the improvement were not significant, resulting in each case in better performances of the farrowing house. The economic analysis underlined the convenience of the probiotic use.