|Tipo di tesi||Tesi di laurea magistrale|
|Titolo||EFFETTI NEUROPROTETTIVI INDOTTI DA ESTRATTI DI PRUNUS AVIUM L. (VARIETÀ: MORETTA DI VIGNOLA) SU NEURONI E MICROGLIA IN UN MODELLO CELLULARE DI MORBO DI PARKINSON.|
|Titolo in inglese||NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS INDUCED BY EXTRACTS OF PRUNUS AVIUM L. (CULTIVAR: MORETTA DI VIGNOLA) ON NEURONS AND MICROGLIA IN A CELLULAR MODEL OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE.|
|Struttura||Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita|
|Corso di studi||CHIMICA E TECNOLOGIA FARMACEUTICHE (D.M. 270/04)|
|Data inizio appello||2020-04-07|
|Disponibilità||Embargo di 3 anni|
|Data di rilascio||2023-04-07|
Il morbo di Parkinson (PD) è un disturbo cronico e progressivo del movimento la cui causa è sconosciuta. La PD comporta il malfunzionamento e la morte dei neuroni dopaminergici della Substantia Nigra nel SNC, che controllano il movimento e la coordinazione. Questa perdita neuronale è associata a una risposta gliale, che può mediare alcuni eventi deleteri legati alla produzione di specie reattive quali prostaglandine e citochine pro-infiammatorie.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive movement disorder whose cause is unknown. PD causes the malfunction and death of the dopamine neurons of Substantia Nigra in the CNS, which control movement and coordination. This neuronal loss is associated with a glial response, which can mediate some deleterious events related to the production of reactive species such as pro-inflammatory prostaglandins and cytokines. Dietary polyphenols, known as powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents, have shown interesting neuroprotective actions against neurodegenerative diseases. This is due to the fact that oxidative stress is one of the key processes underlying the most common types of chronic diseases. In this context, the present study is focused on the evaluation of the neuroprotective activity of bioactive compounds for the prevention of neurodegenerative disorders (ND) by means of analytical and biological techniques. Attention is focused on a local fruit: the sweet cherry "Moretta di Vignola", a product of Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) from the surrounding area of Modena. Sweet cherries are fruits containing a variety of phytochemicals, in particular anthocyanins which are characterized by a high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. These compounds bring potential health prevention benefits related to neurodegenerative diseases as well as to cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes and inflammation. Suitable extraction techniques have been optimized for the preparation antioxidant phenolic rich extracts (APEs) to be submitted to biological tests. The nutraceutical potential of APEs as neuroprotective agents in PD was tested using toxicity induced by Rotenone in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease. For this purpose, two cell lines (SH–SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and BV–2 microglial cells) were treated with Rotenone neurotoxin (ROT) (to develop the experimental conditions of in vitro neurodegeneration) and, subsequently, they were treated with different concentrations of APE. In addition, in order to understand the possible neuroprotective action exerted by microglial cells on neuronal cells, we conducted experiments in which we added, to the SH-SY5Y neuronal cells, the conditioned culture media (CM) taken from the previously treated BV-2 microglial cells. The viability of the cells subjected to the various treatments was assessed using specific viability tests (MTT and Alamar blue test). SH–SY5Y cells and BV-2 cells showed different sensitivity to Rotenone at increasing concentrations of APE. In both cell lines, at effective concentrations of Rotenone, the co-administration of APE was able to bring the viability levels back to values significantly different from those of the single administration of Rotenone. Treatment with some conditioned culture media from BV-2 cells improves the viability of SH-SY5Y cells thus indicating a cross-talk between microglia and neurons in our PD model. Preliminary experiments also revealed that Rotenone is capable of producing BV-2 reactive oxygen species (ROS) in concentration- and time-dependent manner. The evaluation of the effect of increasing concentrations of APE on ROS production is, therefore, of great interest, both in BV-2 cells and in SH-SY5Y cells after treatment with Rotenone alone or associated with CM. Our results will allow the valorization of the sweet cherry "Moretta di Vignola" for its high content of bioactive compounds and the definition of a nutraceutical use of its derivatives in the prevention of neuro-degeneration with a high socio-economic impact.