|Tipo di tesi||Tesi di dottorato di ricerca|
|Autore||DI CECILIA, LUCA|
|Titolo||Metodi e tecnologie optoelettroniche innovativi per la diagnosi precoce di patologie oculari.|
|Titolo in inglese||Novel Optoelectronic Methods and Techniques for the Early Detection of Ocular Diseases|
|Settore scientifico disciplinare||ING-INF/07 - MISURE ELETTRICHE E ELETTRONICHE|
|Corso di studi||INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES (ICT)|
|Data inizio appello||2019-03-06|
|Disponibilità||Accessibile via web (tutti i file della tesi sono accessibili)|
Oggigiorno, i recenti progressi nell'ottica biomedica consentono una visualizzazione senza precedenti dei tessuti biologici e nuove analisi delle loro proprietà. Sono state sviluppate tecniche di fotonica innovative per diagnostica e terapia di diverse patologie e malattie. La fusione di elettronica, fotonica ed intelligenza artificiale sta portando a scoperte rivoluzionarie in importanti settori della medicina.
Nowadays, recent advances in biomedical optics allow unprecedented visualization of biological tissues and novel analyzes of their properties. Innovative photonics techniques have been developed for diagnostics and therapy of different pathologies and diseases. The merging of electronics, photonics and artificial intelligence is leading to revolutionary findings in important areas of medicine. However, there are multiple fields in which biomedical optics research still plays an important role: ophthalmology is surely one of them. According to recent statistics from the National Eye Institute, the number of people affected by Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and glaucoma will double by 2050. The progression of such pathologies, if diagnosed at their initial stage, can be either controlled or stopped, hence preventing further ocular damages and loss of eyesight. Therefore, there is an increasing need of biomedical instrumentation capable of detecting these diseases at their early stage. The work described in this dissertation was driven by recent studies which highlighted that: (i) the human iris color is a prognostic factor in glaucoma and AMD occurrence, and (ii) that there is a strict correlation beween retinal blood flow and the development of both glaucoma and DR. The goal of my doctorate work was to develop new optical technologies that could be applied in clinical practice for the early detection of such ocular pathologies. The main part of my doctorate work, which is detailed in chapter 2, exploited the first hypothesis. A hyperspectral imaging system for the human iris was designed and implementated. The developed system is able to collect hyperspectral images of a patient’s iris in vivo, across a broad spectral range in the visible and near-infrared, with high spectral and spatial resolution. The key feature of the instrument is that it quantitatively measures the iris spectral reflectance with a simple and non-invasive procedure. The second hypothesis lays out the foundation for the work described in chapter 3, which is related to the development of an instrument to measure the blood flow in the ocular fundus vessels. To do that, superluminescent diode self-mixing interferometry was exploited. The measuring system exploits the Doppler interference pattern produced by the light back-reflected from the inner facet of a pipe, which simulates the blood vessel, and the light back-diffused by the moving particles. The conclusions are presented in chapter 4 in which the diagnostic capabilities and the performance of the developed instruments are compared to current clinical procedures.